Session 14: The NLP Communication Model


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The Communication Model explains how we process the information that comes into us from the world around us – a process which begins with an external event that we experience through our sensory input channels (VAKOG). Before we make an internal representation (IR) we run the event through our internal processing filters – in other words, we filter the experience – that is we Delete, Distort and Generalise the information that comes in.

This is how we make experience our own or create our own reality; our subjective experience of the same event will be completely different to the person sitting next to us. This is why it is critical to be able to ‘do’ Sensory Acuity, Behavioural Flexibility andRapport, to be able to get into 2nd Position. When you understand what other’s lives are like you will be more effective in your work with your’ clients.



Deletion means that we overlook or omit certain sensory information; we selectively pay attention to certain aspects of our experience and ignore others. We do this because if we did not we would quite literally be overwhelmed by all of the information coming in. Our conscious minds can only handle 7+ or – 2 at any one time and as Tad James points out, not everybody can handle this many



Distortion occurs when we make shifts in our experience of sensory data by making misrepresentations of reality.  There’s a well-known story of distortion in Eastern philosophy.  It is called the story of the rope and the snake.  A man walking along a road saw what he believed to be a snake and yelled, “SNAKE.” However, upon closer investigation he is relieved to discover that it really was only a piece of rope.

Distortion also helps us in the process of motivating ourselves. Motivation occurs when we actually distort the material that has come to us and that has already been changed by one of our filtering systems.  Distortion is also helpful in planning.  We distort to plan when we construct imaginary futures.



This is when we draw global conclusions based on one, two or more experiences. Used to good effect it is one of the ways we learn – whereby we take in information and draw broad conclusions, or make rules, about the world. At worst it is the process by which we can take a single event and turn it into a lifetime of experience.

The Communication Model demonstrates that we Delete, Distort and Generalise by using certain internal processing filters which are:

  • Meta Programs
  • Values
  • Beliefs
  • Attitudes
  • Decisions
  • Memories

More attention is paid to Meta Programs and Values at Masters Level, but it is important at this stage to have some understanding of how these operate alongside the others. Indeed we have come across them before; for example we have considered the relative merits of having a tendency to either move ‘away from’ an undesirable situation  or move ‘towards’ an outcome.

Meta Programs are the most unconscious of the internal processing filters, and they are content free – what this means is that they have no content themselves – but they act to filter the content of our experience.

They delete and distort by either adding to or taking away from our generalisations. They are just one of the ways we maintain our identities by either preserving (adding to) or breaking down (taking away) the generalisations we make over time. It is useful to know a client’s Meta Programs because this will enable you to closely predict their states and also their behaviour. It is also possible to assist a client to change their Meta Programswhere this would be to their benefit. However should not be used to type cast people or for determining right or wrong – there is no right or wrong – they are simply one way a person processes information. When we come across them as we move along we will flag them up.



These are the next most unconscious filter; unlike Meta Programs they have content in and of themselves. They serve as an evaluation filter; they are the means by which we decide whether our actions are good or bad, or right or wrong. Because of our values we are able to determine how we feel about ours and others actions.

We all have differing models of the world, or an Internal Representation of how the world is – and our Values are inter related with our model of the world. They are arranged in a hierarchy, with the most important at the top and the lesser ones below that. When we communicate with ourselves and with others, if our model of the world conflicts with ourValues or their Values, there is likely to be a conflict. Tad James describes Values as:

“those ideas in which we are willing to invest time, energy and resources to either achieve or avoid.”

They are what people typically move toward or away from – our attractions and repulsions in life One of the first tasks in coaching is to elicit a client’s values – they serve as a benchmark to guide client’s back to if things go off track. It is important to know what is important to you!



The next level of filters are beliefs.  Beliefs are convictions or acceptances that certain things are true or real.  They are also generalizations about the state of the world.  One of the more important elements in Modelling (which is an NLP process from recreating excellence; see Glossary) is to find a person’s beliefs about a particular behaviour we are trying to model. 

Richard Bandler says:

“Beliefs are those things we can’t get around”.

Beliefs are the presuppositions that we have about certain things that either create or deny personal power for us.  At this level beliefs are essentially our on/off switches for our ability to do anything in the world, because if you don’t believe you can do something, you probably won’t have the opportunity to find out.

In the process of working with someone’s beliefs it is important to elicit or find out what beliefs he has that causes him to be able to do what he does.  We also want to find out the disabling beliefs, the ones that do not allow them to do what they want to do.



Attitudes are collections of values and belief systems around a certain subject.  We are usually quite conscious of our attitudes, and often tell people, “Well, that’s just the way I feel about that.”

Change made on the level of attitude is often substantially harder than the level of values. Have you ever tried to change someone’s attitude? It is far easier to change values than attitudes because of the level of abstraction.



Like the corners of my mind
Misty water-colored memories
Of the way we were
Scattered pictures,
Of the smiles we left behind
Smiles we gave to one another
For the way we were
Can it be that it was all so simple then?
Or has time re-written every line?
If we had the chance to do it all again
Tell me, would we? Could we?
Memories, may be beautiful and yet
What’s too painful to remember
We simply choose to forget
So it’s the laughter
We will remember
Whenever we remember…
The way we were…

Barbara Streisand

The fifth filter is out collection of memories.  Memories deeply affect a person’s perceptions and personality.  They are who we are.  In fact, some psychologists believe that as we get older our reactions in the present are reactions to gestalts (collections of memories that are organised in a certain way around a certain subject) of past memories and that the present plays very little part in our behaviour.



The sixth filter, which is also related to memories, are decisions that were made in the past.  Decisions about who we are, especially limiting decisions, can affect our entire life.  Decisions may create beliefs, values, attitudes and even life themes, or they may just affect our perceptions through time.  The problem with many decisions is that they were made either unconsciously or at a very early age and forgotten.

Also, we may decide at one point in time and then not re-evaluate our decisions as we grow and our values change.  Those decisions that are not re-evaluated (especially the limiting ones) often affect our life in ways that we had not originally intended.

Decisions and memories vary throughout the range of conscious and unconscious.  Individual decisions and memories may be found to be more or less conscious than certain values, beliefs and attitudes.



These six filters, then, determine what information is retained as we make an IR of any event.  It is our IR that causes us to be in a certain “state” and creates a certain physiology. “State” refers to the internal emotional state of the individual- i.e., a happy state, a sad state, a motivated stat, and so on.  Our IR includes our internal pictures, sounds and dialogue, and our feelings (for example, whether we feel motivated, challenged, pleased, excited, and so on).  The state in which we find ourselves determines our behaviour.  So the IR of the event combines with a physiology and creates a state.  A given state is the result of the combination of an internal representation and a physiology.  And all behaviour is state-related.

So these filters, in a way, determine our actions, since what is retained or deleted will have a major effect on the IR.  Why is it that two people can attend the same event, and one will love it, while the other hates it?  The reason is because the IR is so dependent on the filters.



light_bulb_ideaRemember that in this model the map (or the IR) is not the territory.  Our every experience is something that we literally “make up” inside our heads.  We experience reality indirectly, since we are always deleting, distorting and generalizing.  Essentially, we experience our representation of the experience of the territory and not the territory itself.


–Time Line Therapy and the Basis of Personality, Tad James and Wyatt Woodsmall


Please ensure that you have read pages 8 – 14 and listened to the MP3 recording before answering the following questions. Please then post your completed work in the Comment box at the bottom of this page. We recommend that you complete your work in a Word Document so that you have your own copy. Thank you!

1) With reference to what you have learned explain in your own words how we process information and create our own reality. (250-500 words)

 2) With reference to one filter – Beliefs – describe a change you could make that will have a positive impact on the reality you create / your life. (250-500 words)

Please note:

The word counts are intended as a guideline to give you an indication of how much to write.

Where you have relied on any additional references please list these at the end of your work. For example:

The NLP Workbook, Joseph O’Connor, (2001), Chapter 1: What is NLP? Pages 1-3



  1. 1) With reference to what you have learned explain in your own words how we process information and create our own reality. (250-500 words)

    As everyone runs through life at a pace that only seems to increase it does really seem to make sense that everyone, acting as an individual has to delete/distort/generalise information and experiences in order to move on to the next item of gathered information. A persons opinion of an event or experience are often presupposed to the experience as they have already built up a picture in their mind.
    Eg: a person who is going to a theme park who hates queues will undoubtedly upon their departure remark that the queues were exhaustive and far too long, before they will mention the rides themselves.
    How many people expecting a film to be awful, because of the director or the lead actors or plot etc will watch it and change their mind by the end?
    I think reminding a client and indeed yourself of the values of each person is a sure fire way to bring people back on track and keep the focus
    2) With reference to one filter – Beliefs – describe a change you could make that will have a positive impact on the reality you create / your life. (250-500 words)

    When looking inwards I can see that there are many instances when I can hold myself back because I believe that the path I am looking towards I would not have the ability to travel down. When more often than not, when I just drive forward with a preoccupation or goal in mind without thinking too much about what I believe I can achieve, I realise I have actually achieved far more than I would have thought possible.

  2. 1) With reference to what you have learned explain in your own words how we process information and create our own reality.

    When we experience an event we actually experience what our mind has dictated that we have experienced. The Communication Model breaks down the process from which we create the experience we feel we have had. Initially we take the information in through our sensory input channels, which are comprised of our five senses: visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, smell and taste. We then go on to delete, distort and lastly generalise the event.

    As our minds cannot take all information in at once we delete the majority of material which our sensory channels are exposed to. This means it is only the information our minds deem important enough are retained. We then distort the information to fit into the reality we feel we are experiencing. Lastly, we rely on sweeping or global conclusions to determine the reality of the event. All of this is done through the use of six filters in our mind: Meta Programs, Values, Beliefs, Attitudes, Memories and Decisions.

    The first filter is unconscious and it either adds or diminishes the generalisations we have attached to an event. Values act as a way of deeming what we believe is acceptable and what is unacceptable. Beliefs are the realities or ideas we believe to be true and have faith in. Attitudes are comprised of the former and the latter, which come together to evaluate certain subjects and what they mean to us. Memories are an intricate part of each of us and can act as pillar for our reactions later on in life. Finally, the decision filter is concerned with past decisions which can form us for the rest of our lives. Even seemingly minuscule decisions can be carried with us and effect the way we act and look at our realities.

    The Communication Model demonstrates that the life we lead is mostly based on the way we view it. It shows that we can make our time here better by taking the time to understand our filtering process and what we determine important to us. Our reality is subjective and we have the power to make that reality the best it can be.

    2) With reference to one filter – Beliefs – describe a change you could make that will have a positive impact on the reality you create / your life.

    If I had a stronger belief in myself I could achieve so much more. The incessant “you’ll never be able to do that” or “like that is going to happen” and so on is such an unnecessarily negative outlook. I feel personally this is something I am constantly struggling with. I have a habit of putting myself down long before I ever begin a task or a goal. This usually results in me never beginning or very quickly ending whatever I was working to achieve.

    If I worked on being easier on myself I think my whole reality would be more fulfilled and I would feel more accomplished. I want to get healthy, meaning eating well and exercising more and I also want to receive more qualifications by studying many different areas, really opening up my mind. As well as this I go to college full time and I also work. Even little things for leisure like reading a book becomes a big problem, everything just becomes a task I cannot complete in time or fully. With all the stuff I have going on I really need to learn to be nicer to myself or I will become even more overwhelmed.

  3. 14
    1) With reference to what you have learned explain in your own words how we process information and create our own reality.
    The Communication Model in NLP explains how we experience our own reality. As the amount of information coming to us from the world around is overwhelming, we need to filter this information so we are able to make sense to us. WE can delete, distort or generalise the information and to do so we are using internal filters. There are six filters describe in the Communication Model: meta programs, values, beliefs, attitudes, decisions and memories. Where the meta programs are unconscious filters and content free, in other words they can only add or take away from the already existing generalisation. Values filter help us to decide what action to take and if the action was right or wrong. Next are beliefs and they help us make certain generalisations as we approve certain things to be real or right. Beliefs are very powerful cause once we take a certain view on our ability we tend to stick to that belief and it can affect our performance or by taking a positive view can empower us to take the right action. On the other hand, attitudes are our conscious ideas made up from our values and beliefs taken together. Memories are strongly linked to our individual perception of the world. The last sixth filter is decisions. Especially decisions that were made in the past have a great impact on our life because these decisions represent who we are.
    2) With reference to one filter – Beliefs – describe a change you could make that will have a positive impact on the reality you create / your life.
    In terms of beliefs and what change I could make to improve my life, I decided to write about a certain generalization that I have created in my head and what affected most of my personal relationships with gays;)). Basically I had a few unhappy relationships and I can’t get over the thinking that all gays are the same! Sorry;)) I kind of understand that everybody is different and my friends are telling me that I just haven’t met the one yet but I feel so scare to enter new relationship that it is almost impossible thing to do;(( So it is a challenge for me but I decided to work on it and give a chance to someone who I met recently and I will try not to be put off by any behaviour from his side that I will not like or I won’t agree with instead I will try to find out the reason and to understand him rather than just find excuse to run away again;))

  4. How we process information and create our own reality.

    We make an internal representation of any event we experience by the way our sensory input channels receive it. (VAKOG) Before the aiR is made the event runs through our internal processing filters where we delete, distort ir generalise the information. Our values, beliefs and attitudes, memories and decisions then determine what information is retained and creates our internal representation which creates an emotional state we are in.


    One of the beliefs I have is that people will laugh at me if I do something on public and look silly. This stops me from taking part in group things, I hate role plays, walking into full rooms. I avoid speaking my mind or giving my opinion when in groups of people. If I changed my belief to people are not looking at me and wont laugh I would be more true to myself and join in more and gave more fun

  5. 14.nlp communication ,
    our own process happens when we experience a event ,its subjective we process it in our minds and create our own reality, because of our [vakog ]our sensory input, we then move on and distort it using our own values, beliefs, attitudes, memories,and decisions [meta program], our minds can process a limted amount 7 plus 2 or minus 2,, so in reality we could experience the same thing but it would be different experience dependent on the above,
    2, with reference to one filter belief i could change to have a positive impact on my life,, if i could be less perfectionistic in whatever i do, it stops me attempting a lot , and creates worry and a lot of dissatisfaction in what ever my task,and even stops me a lot of the time doing things, i guess it goes with the belief that im not enough as i am, but rarely feeling satisfied is a debilitating feeling ,

  6. 1) With reference to what you have learned explain in your own words how we process information and create our own reality

    We filter information which comes to us through our own internal filters, and this is how we create our own reality and perceptions . Our filters are based around our values, our experiences, our previous experiences or memories, our beliefs, our observations, our attitudes. Our personal beliefs play a huge role in how we view our life. We develop our personal beliefs about reality based on how we interpret the world around us according to our observations and experiences. Once established, beliefs are accepted as fact and are rarely subject to scrutiny. They become our “personal operating system.”
    Everything we see, experience, think and feel is adjusted to fit with our beliefs. Many of our beliefs were established in childhood, while others are leftovers from situations and circumstances that are no longer relevant, but once we have our reality then we behave and react to that perceived reality

    With reference to one filter – Beliefs – describe a change you could make that will have a positive impact on the reality you create.
    I am coming to realise that I have a belief that life is tough. I don’t know where I got this from, but I suspect it was from my childhood, where we grew up quite poor and watching my parents working hard and having no money. Anyway I feel that I expect life to be hard so I work hard and I take on a lot more responsibility that I should and also I don’t expect much for myself. This is not a great way to behave and react so I would like to change my attitude to this and say “ life doesn’t have to be tough “, and also to say “ its how you feel about it that makes the difference, if you expect it to be tough then that’s what you will look out for and attract. “. So I am going to say “ life is wonderful and a joy and it is easy and enriching”, and see how that will be for me

  7. 1) We process information internally while using the following, deletion, distorting and generalisation. We then filter the information based on our own values, beliefs, attitudes, meta programs, memories and decisions. All of these influences and experiences determine how we react when we process information and the outcome being visible in our behaviours. Our internal review system contains, pictures, sound, dialogue and our feelings. Our current emotional state determines our behaviour as all behaviour is state related.

    2) Belief – A change I’m willing to make regarding belief is that I’m good at team sports. I have always felt I was no good at team sports and made feel like this from an early age and from a previous coach when I was in secondary school. Being told that you’re not energetic, fast and skilled enough and that you’re not benefiting the team isn’t constructive and over time changed my view on team sports. By changing my beliefs today and the way I think and feel about team sports, this will allow me to enjoy being selected or to participate in team sports. I will concentrate and practice breathing techniques, exercise and team skills to achieve changing this belief. I may join a team to demonstrate my skills.

  8. 1. We can only take in a small amount of information from the huge amount of sensory input around us. We receive information of an external event through the five sensory channels: visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, olfactory and gustatory. This information is then filtered and a large part deleted so that we do not suffer from sensory overload. The filters are: values, beliefs, attitudes, decisions and memories. What is deleted depends on our personal preferences e.g if we are auditory we may remember the sound. The information can be distorted by mis-reading it or generalised by making a conclusion about the information based on other experiences. This means that when information passes through our brain we filter, delete, distort and generalise it to process it. In this way we make our own personal reality.
    2. I know that my personal belief system holds me back. I have wanted to be an artist my whole life but deep down I have never felt good enough. I think that changing my perception of what an artist really is would help me to change my belief system about myself.

  9. 1-: as human beings with unique active minds , personalities & individuality , we all process information differently , this may also be influenced by our mood , feelings, hormones, time of day / night, in any one given moment. the communication model represents 6 different filters that come into play every time we process/ digest information from the world around us.. Our response will be influenced by our under lying filters, meta program’s , values, beliefs, attitudes, decisions & memory .. Aiding us to let go of what we don’t need , while hanging onto the information that satisfies our mind at that time. As we can not hold onto the every bit of information thrown at us , we filter out the relevant bits , processing this in the mind in order to make choices , decisions or continue with the conversation we are in at that given moment ..
    I can however appreciate how people under stress or pressure may misinterpret what is actually being said which can lead to confusion , upset or making a wrong choice leaving feelings of regret. Hence the importance of attentively listening to clients / family & friends in order to reduce this from occurring .. Which I feel is a waste of energy as a situation may need to be revisited , ironed out, so both parties can Move on with a cleare understanding of their preferred outcome.

    2-: a change I had to make recently was around my belief in ” trust” as I was connected apparently from Canada by a couple who had sourced my yoga business from the website, saying they had chosen me when they hoped to visit northern ireland for a special anniversary vacation..they wanted to avail of yoga everyday & could I facilitate their request… I was delighted to be noticed internationally & agreed , payment via a cheque was madea in Canadian dollars , they’d over paid me by accident so once the monies had cleared according to my bank I refunded my client the difference.. To learn a few days later the original cheque was counterfeit … I was therefore out the money personally as the bank reclaimed.. This was resolved my bank did feel responsible – but that’s not the point I’m making .. My belief & trust in supposedly like minded yogis was destroyed, the hurt, shame, embarrassment I incurred was horrendous as it reflected back to my beliefs, treat others as you would treat yourself… This was a huge learning curve for me and I now stop think take more time over decision making / Trust , as I rebuild my trust in human beings around me ….

  10. SESSION 14

    Exercise 1:

    With reference to what you have learned, describe how we process information and create our own reality

    We take information through our five senses (pictures, feelings, sounds, taste, smell) and file it. However, before we actually file this information, we filter it based on our life experiences to date. . The information that one person takes in, will differ from that of another. If two people witness a car accident, the report they provide of what happened with not be identical to that of the other. We distort, delete and then generalise. If we were to take in every piece of information on front of us, we would become totally overwhelmed. It is only the information which our mind deems as important enough to retain which we register, thus deleting a significant amount of this information firstly available to us. Then we distort the information the mind deemed as important by making misrepresentations of same, making it fit into our own reality. We then go on to make global conclusions based on previous experience. All this is done through using 6 filters in our mind i.e., meta programs, values, beliefs, attitudes, decisions and memories. Meta programs are content free, yet add or take away from the generalisations we have attached to an event. Our value systems act as an evaluation mechanism in that they help us to decide what action is good or bad, right or wrong. Beliefs are really convictions or acceptances that things are true or real and have faith in. Attitudes are a combination of the above around a certain subject. Memories are a sinuous part of us, they are who we are and they deeply affect our perceptions and personality. The final filter is decision. The decisions and also relates to memories. The decisions we made in the past about who we are, particularly limiting ones, can affect our entire life. The communication model demonstrates that we see what we believe, that our view of the world is based on our filtering process and the more time we take to understanding this the nicer life’s experiences will be.

    Exercise 2:
    With reference to one filter –Beliefs – describe one change you could make that would have a positive impact on the reality you create/your life

    One limiting belief I acquired in early childhood was the need to excel at everything I do. Sometimes, I become conscious of this but most of the time it is playing out on a subconscious basis. I strive to always be the best I can be, particularly when it comes to achieving in my studies/career. I now realise that I associated the approval of my father with how well I did at school or how much I achieved in my career. However, recognising this and doing something to completely remove this limiting belief will I have no doubt prove challenging. If I was finally able to completely change this belief, I would be able to relax more, not be so hard on myself, stop the need to constantly add more and more skills to my tool box and focus more. This would mean I become kinder to me and the special journey I wish and strive to enable my clients to experience, would also be part of my worldly experience. I would also stop striving, gain clarity on different aspects of my life and relinguish the need to prove my worth

    Taking the time to work through this exercise has crystalized for me, when and where this limiting belief originated and as a result I can go right to it’s core and begin the process of removing it.

  11. With reference to what you have learned, describe how we process information and create our own reality

    We experience reality through our own unique lens which filters the actual world into our own representation of it. Our filters include meta programs (programs that run other programs), values (what we hold as important) , beliefs (what we believe to be true), attitudes (our opinions and stances on a subject) and memories (everything we’ve ever experienced).

    We take in information via our five senses and run them through our filters and because there is too much information for the conscious memory to handle (7+-2 bits of information) we generalise, delete and distort that information. We will omit some information and not remember it as it has been deleted. We will generalise and take something we have experienced in the past and assume it applies to all experiences of the same kind, such as if you have had a few bad dates you will generalise that all dates are bad. We will also distort and see things in a certain way that may not be the truth. A good example of this is walking in the dark and seeing a shadow and seeing a person there lurking in the dark to attack you and nobody is actually there.

    All this will create pictures, sounds and feelings in our heads about the world and this will dictate our state (happy, sad, worried, stressed etc) which will in turn affect our behaviour. This explains why we all have our own unique experiences of the same event.

    With reference to one filter –Beliefs – describe one change you could make that would have a positive impact on the reality you create/your life

    I have examined my beliefs around money recently and I found that there were quite a few! I have always believed that ‘money only goes to money’ and you have to work very very hard to get it and because I saw my parents struggle with money, I always believed that I too would always struggle. I have also believed that money makes people greedy and just want more money. I have came to realise that they are limiting beliefs and have actually made me struggle! I am starting my own business and these belief really do not serve me as there are plenty examples of people attaining wealth that haven’t came from a rich backgrounds and are also helping make a massive difference in the world with their wealth. Changing my beliefs around money will make me believe that I can have that too and I don’t need to struggle. I can work in something I enjoy and make money from it.

  12. Session 14: The NLP Communication Model

    1) With reference to what you have learned explain in your own words how we process information and create our own reality. (250-500 words)

    The NLP Communication Model offers explanations as to how 2 people can witness the same event yet react so differently. As our vast amount of sensory input gets filtered, we delete, distort and generalise information to form an Internal Representation of our own reality. There are 6 filters involved in this process: Meta-Programs (content-free and determine the fate of our generalisations), values (what we perceive as good/bad and right/wrong actions), beliefs (our conviction that something is real, which can create or deny us personal power), attitudes (our collection of values and beliefs that we are usually conscious of), memories (our experiences) and decisions (outcomes and consequences of past decisions). Our Internal Representation or how we interpret an event affects our emotional state and in turn underpins our physiology and behaviours. Misinterpretation and a skewed perception of events can occur as our filters are personal, unique and based on generalisations of our own individual past experiences.

    2) With reference to one filter – Beliefs – describe a change you could make that will have a positive impact on the reality you create / your life. (250-500 words).

    One of my beliefs is that if a job isn’t done well then it’s not worth doing. My perfectionism can often hold me back from starting a task or even having a go. I can sometimes feel so overwhelmed by the notion of doing something incorrectly, getting something wrong, not achieving the desired and perfect end result that I sometimes don’t even make the first step. I spend far too much time thinking than actually doing. However, once over the hurdle and committed to a task this apparently self-limiting belief turns into a fierce determination to achieve. Here’s an example from a couple of days ago how I made progress in changing this belief.
    I bought a cross trainer in a sale. Now I’m not a fitness fanatic and actually have little interest in exercise, however it looked fun, was a great price and I was actually excited about the prospect of becoming fitter. It arrived and I spent the first day overthinking what I’d done and visualising gym enthusiasts working out; I could never keep up their pace! On day 2 I took my first step, started jogging at the pace I believed I had to go to get fit. I lasted less than 1 minute! I was right, I could never be fit and I became even more subdued! What a waste of money even if it was a bargain! Later that day my son hopped on and I watched how he walked really slowly and just enjoyed the motion of the machine while he watched TV. It never even occurred to me that it was actually ok to start off really slowly and just build up my 1 minute saunters into the full-blown energetic workout that I believed this equipment was built for. From now on if I find myself overthinking a task I’ll remember that quite literally just climbing on board, taking the first slow step and enjoying the ride is often more important than overthinking the perfect end result. I’m pleased to say that it’s now day 4 and I can manage 3 minutes.

  13. The NLP Communication model:
    1) With reference to what you have learned explain in your own words how we process information and create our own reality. (250-500 words)
    Every individual experiences events in a unique way to them. It really is surprising how differently we interpret things. I recently took part in an exercise, which asked a small group to listen to the lyrics of Tracey Chapman’s’ song, Fast Cars, and then feed back to the others what the song was about. Intriguingly each member of the group had a different view from a song about hope to a song about love to a song about escape. Which was right? We came to the conclusion that only Tracey Chapman could tell us.
    What the exercise did tell us is that we all can have a very different perspective on things and the NLP communication model explains why this can be so.
    When each of us experiences an event, our mind goes to work processing the information through all our senses (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, smell and taste) and tries to make sense of it within our own internal world. In order that we are not overwhelmed by information or experiences, we selectively delete some aspects, albeit unconsciously. We also distort and generalize what we experience to both good and bad effect.
    All of this happens whilst we apply a number of internal processing filters, some which are unconscious and some which are conscious. These six filters listed below are applied to create our own internal view or representation of an experience of event.

    Internal Processing Filters:

    1. Meta Programs
    2. Values
    3. Beliefs
    4. Attitudes
    5. Memories
    6. Decisions

    Meta Program filters are unconscious almost instinctive – they are who we are, our identity, and when understood can be used to predict behaviour in certain circumstances.

    The Values filter is also applied unconsciously and they evaluate whether we think something is good or bad. Next in line is our set of beliefs – how we see things. They are what we believe to be true and so can be very powerful in both positive and negative ways in relation to feeling being able achieve things.

    Attitudes are a very powerful set of filters and are made up of a collection of belief and value systems. These are very hard to change.

    Past memories are also applied in our filtering process and shape how we perceive something. They make up who we are and have a strong affect on our personality and perceptions. Finally we filter using past decisions, which are also connected to memories. Some of our decisions can be conscious and some unconscious depending on when they were and what we remember. Our decisions can affect our beliefs, attitudes values and perceptions.

    Once an external event or experience has been processed through our unique internal filters it is internally represented or interpreted. This then affects how we feel about it and ultimately how we then go on to behave.

    2) With reference to one filter – Beliefs – describe a change you could make that will have a positive impact on the reality you create / your life. (250-500 words)

    In the first step towards changing it, I am aware that I have a self-limiting belief that I am not good at selling myself. This can have an incredibly negative impact in terms of how I present myself in business whether it is at interview or simply introducing myself. I have traced this belief back to an event where I did not perform well at an interview. This one event which I have chosen to focus on despite all the other scenarios where I have performed well – very frustrating! In order to change this belief I could try some affirmations stating the opposite and be less hard on myself in general. We can’t always be perfect at something, in fact our imperfections make us human and one might argue more interesting. I could also try and change the way I remember the event, perhaps by labeling it as a learning experience rather than a failure to remember.

    Although I know these changes won’t make a huge difference overnight, I do have faith that over time I will be able to re-programme myself and with more practice and more positive experiences to call upon this belief can be altered to my benefit.

  14. Session 14
    1. With reference to what you have learned explain in your own words how we process information and create our own reality
    When we get information it goes through a number of processes to get to the information our external senses take in. This is called the Communication Model. Richard Bandler suggests that.. “your understanding of the world is based on how you represent it – your map-and not the world itself”. In order to understand the world we map it in our brains). Information is received and before it is responded to or acknowledge our mind goes through a series of processing. The Communication Model says we go through three processes these are Deletion, distortion and generalisation. The three processes are broken down further and are based on our internal filters that process the information. These are Mata programme which is an unconscious filter, Values which is also an unconscious filter though it is more of an evaluation tool, Beliefs filters are conviction or acceptance of truths or untruths, Attitude filters are more conscious and helps to place values and beliefs in the process of determining communication. The other filters include Memories which affects how we behave and observe things and decision.
    So we are given external information and before it is received internally and responded to, the information goes through the outlined process. This is due in part to our brains not being able review all the information therefore the deletion process takes place, then we distorts the information because we link it to past memories which then brings about misrepresentation of the information being either positive or negative depending on our memories filter. Then we generalise in order to draw conclusion on the information to gain an internalised response.
    2. With reference to one filter – Beliefs – describe a change you could make that will have a positive impact on the reality you create / your life
    There are many of us who go through life believing we can’t do something or we’re not good enough to get to a certain place in our development for example “I’m not good enough to coach other people”, or “people like us don’t do that kind of thing”. Some of the judgements we make in order to stay in one place or to justify procrastination and lack of development. We continually distort, delete and generalise our way through life constantly looking for the easier options, recalling one of these memories will qualify our reasoning. What this communication process is telling me is that as we delete and generalise we make little of what could be a bigger or important thing.
    I think in now understanding my internal communication I should be more mindful of the way my negative beliefs can impact on my internal response thereby affecting my reality and representation in my wider world. This has really touched me and I hope this will be a turning point for me to hone into and understand my internal communication changing it where ever I possibly can.
    Ref: The Ultimate Introduction to NLP 2013 pg3-10

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